After Brexit, some anticipated a shift in European sentiment and believed other members would follow the UK's lead. But 6 years on, the bloc seems more cohesive than ever and optimism is high. So why is this? And how did the EU become stronger than ever?
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1 - www.eumonitor.eu/9353000/1/j9vvik7m1c3gyxp/vlnzng3cfbz9
2 - www.theguardian.com/world/2023/jan/12/support-for-leaving-eu-has-fallen-significantly-across-bloc-since-brexit
3 - ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_4610
4 - www.politico.eu/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/12/EP_Autumn_2022__EB042EP_presentation_en.pdf
5 - www.economist.com/the-world-ahead/2022/11/18/britain-is-the-sick-man-of-europe-once-again
6 - www.statista.com/statistics/685846/population-of-selected-european-countries/
7 - www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-eu-netherlands-idUSKCN21R31J
8 - www.theguardian.com/world/2020/mar/12/ecb-announces-plan-to-help-eurozone-banks-withstand-coronavirus
9 - ecfr.eu/publication/the-crisis-that-made-the-european-union-european-cohesion-in-the-age-of-covid/
10 - www.theguardian.com/world/2022/sep/17/izium-russian-occupation-ukraine-horrors-donbas-bucha
11 - www.politico.eu/article/the-end-of-europes-putin-illusion/
12 - www.europarl.europa.eu/at-your-service/files/be-heard/eurobarometer/2022/public-opinion-on-the-war-in-ukraine/en-public-opinion-on-the-war-in-ukraine-20221006.pdf
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Think brexit is going to be followed quite shortly now, whether it's going to be Denmark with a deficit or the Netherlands, with an exit or Sweden with this exit I don't know, brexit is the first brick that has been knocked out of the wall during the brexit campaign.
Many supporters of the leave campaign argued that the UK would cause a domino effect and that it was only a matter of time before other countries joined them.
However, almost seven years on this clearly hasn't happened.
In fact, if anything, the reverse is true.
Many countries still want to join the EU and three Georgia Moldova and Ukraine have officially applied for candidate status, since the brexit vote on top of that polling suggests.
That supports for the EU within member states is at record levels with strong majorities, approving of the eu's handling of Ukraine and little appetite for leaving the block.
So in today's video we'll look at why there hasn't been a domino effect since brexit, as, according to latest studies, the idea of leaving the EU, you has been a significant decrease in support across member states.
Looking at the polling in a recent European Social Survey respondents were asked how they would vote in a hypothetical referendum on whether their country should remain in the EU first in 2016-17 and again in 2020-2022 support for leaving the EU fell in every member state with Finland, showing the most significant drop.
Support for leave in the survey's.
Most recent round was highest in the Czech Republic Italy and Sweden, but even those countries have seen a decline since brexit.
On top of that, the most recent Euro barometer polling found that a majority of Europeans are optimistic about the future of the EU and, while that's down from last year, it's still well above historic averages.
So what happened? Why hasn't there been a brexit domino effect? Well, as we see it, there were essentially two reasons: first, the UK's post-brexit woes and second, the way the EU has bonded to various crises.
Since, let's start with how the UK has fared post-brexit since 2016 Britain has been in political turmoil with five prime ministers in six years and mounting economic issues, all of this has been widely reported in the European press and is widely interpreted as being caused, at least partly by brexit.
The brexit negotiations also gave its smaller States confidence that the larger members would stand up for them in the event of a dispute.
The majority of EU members, 22 out of 27, have relatively small populations of around 20 million or less, and only five France Germany, Poland, Spain and Italy have populations over 35 million the way the EU and its larger members protected.
Ireland's interests in the brexit negotiations definitely improved cohesion and Trust in the block.
However, it's not just that brexit has scared other countries from leaving since 2016 the EU has faced a series of crises, and it's responded to surprisingly.
As we see it, there's been at least three discrete crises, covid Ukraine and America.
Let's start with kovid.
At the beginning of the pandemic, the EU was under serious strain as Italy the first European country to be affected by the virus struggled with the worst effects of the pandemic in early 2020, a fierce argument broke out within the EU about so-called Corona bonds, which essentially involved the issuing of bonds at the EU level to fund the European response to covid certain countries, notably The Frugal four resisted any efforts at debt sharing, while Angela Merkel the then chancellor of Germany, described it as the biggest crisis since the EU was founded.
Christine Lagarde famously said that it wasn't the ecb's job to close spreads.
This dinginess didn't go at all well with the Italians or the smaller member states, and it felt like the EU was about to revive the psychodrama of the early early 2010s when so-called creditor countries chided so-called debtor countries, for their fiscal irresponsibility.
However, in the end, the EU ultimately agreed to an enormous Recovery Fund for the hardest hit member states, the largest rescue policy in European history and several times larger in inflation-adjusted terms than the post-world War II Marshall Plan The Recovery Fund annulled the taboo on debt sharing and made smaller member states more optimistic about the prospects of similar programs in the future, which could really help their economies.
The second crisis on our list is Putin's war in Ukraine.
The eu's creation was at least partly motivated by a desire to move away from the chaos of the early 20th century and guarantee peace on the European continent before Putin's Invasion.
This felt outdated and the prospect of an interstate war in Europe seemed far-fetched, obviously that all changed and the EU has responded remarkably proactively to the war, sanctions and weapons deliveries have been coordinated at the EU level and the EU has displayed remarkable Unity throughout the crisis.
The most recent Euro barometer polling found that 74 percent of Europeans approved of the EU support for Ukraine and 81, see the EU as important to their National Security.
This is a massive change from a couple of years ago, when the EU was widely perceived as a slow and geopolitically insignificant bureaucracy beset by Petty infighting.
The final crisis on the list is America.
In the last few years, America has made it clear that its interests are not identical to Europe.
Obviously, you had Trump who's America First policy made many Europeans realize they can no longer rely on America to provide military or political support, and while Biden's presidency has provided some temporary Insurance Biden and the EU still have some pretty significant disagreements.
The EU, for example, aren't as hawkish on China as the Americans and various EU leaders, including macron, have expressed irritation at Biden's massive inflation reduction act, which provides enormous subsidies to American companies and puts European industry at a competitive disadvantage on top of that, Trump or a trump-like figure could easily win in 2024 or 2028, and many European states have realized that they can no longer rely on the U.S as much as they did previously in this new environment of geopolitical competition.
Individual European States, especially the smaller ones, are pretty much powerless and the only way for them to stand up for themselves is via the EU.
You get the point.
This new era of geopolitical competition and the growing distance between Europe and America has made European state to realize that they need to stick together to protect their interests and the EU is the only organization with sufficient geopolitical clout to do that.
Obviously, European cohesion appears to be much stronger in 2022 than it was in 2016 prior to the brexit vote.
That's not to say everything is rosy.
As we've detailed, the EU is facing a variety of threats, but Europeans are generally more positive about the EU and European.
Unity is apparently stronger than at any time in the recent past.
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Business, growth and trade
The EU is the largest trade bloc in the world. It is the world's biggest exporter of manufactured goods and services, and the biggest import market for over 100 countries. Free trade among its members was one of the EU's founding principles.
Across the 14 EU member countries surveyed, a median of 67% hold favorable views of the European Union while 31% have an unfavorable view. Many of the Central and Eastern European countries surveyed hold strongly positive views of the political union.What is the difference between the EU and Europe? ›
The main difference is that Europe is a continent, that is, a physical space that is made up of the countries that inhabit the region, while the European Union is a geopolitical organization that is made up of some countries of the continent.What is the ideal of the EU? ›
The aims of the European Union within its borders are: promote peace, its values and the well-being of its citizens. offer freedom, security and justice without internal borders, while also taking appropriate measures at its external borders to regulate asylum and immigration and prevent and combat crime.What are 3 benefits of being in the EU? ›
Citizens can live or work in any EU country, move their money, freely sell goods, and provide services on the same basis. All these are possible in the world's most highly developed and open marketplace: the single market. The food and environment in the EU meet the world's highest quality standards.What are 3 advantages of being part of the EU? ›
Growing internal market and domestic demand; Free movement of labour, goods, services and capital; Free access to 450 million consumers.
1. Ireland. Countless global reports have continually dubbed the people of Ireland as some of the friendliest and most welcoming to visitors in the world, and our readers feel the same; voting it into the top spot for the friendliest countries in Europe.What is the most liked country in Europe? ›
According to the study, Sweden takes the crown as Europe's most loved nation in Eurovision finals, with an astonishing 5,888 points under its belt from 60 appearances.Is it better to live in the EU? ›
Among the pros are accessible and affordable transportation between European cities, allowing for less expensive tourism; a strong exchange rate; more cost-effective home prices; and an overall healthier lifestyle, ex-pats say.Why is it a European and not an European? ›
'An' is used before words which begin with a vowel sound. Note that we are talking about sounds and not spelling. For example the word "European" begins with the vowel letter 'e' but it is pronounced with the consonant sound / j /. Therefore we say and write, "He's British but he thinks of himself as a European."
Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway
Although these countries are not members of the EU, their nationals can work in the EU on the same footing as EU nationals, since they belong to the European Economic Area.
The European Union is a unique partnership between 27 European countries, known as Member States, or EU countries. Together they cover much of the European continent.Why is the EU so unique? ›
At the core of the EU are its 27 Member States and their citizens. The unique feature of the EU is that although the Member States all remain sovereign and independent states, they pool together some of their sovereignty in areas where this has an added value.What is the best benefit of the EU? ›
freedom for its citizens to live, study or work anywhere in the EU. the world's biggest single market. aid and development assistance for millions of people worldwide.Who has the best quality of life in the EU? ›
|Rank||Country||Quality of Life Index|
The EU promotes democratic values in its member nations and is one of the world's most powerful trade blocs. Nineteen of the countries share the euro as their official currency. The EU grew out of a desire to strengthen economic and political cooperation throughout the continent of Europe in the wake of World War II.What are the pros and cons of the euro? ›
Key Takeaways. The advantages of the euro include promoting trade, encouraging investment, and mutual support. On the downside, the euro was blamed for overly rigid monetary policy and accused of a possible bias in favor of Germany.Why is euro so strong? ›
"As interest rates in Europe rise faster than in the US, it benefits the euro and attracts capital inflows from elsewhere into the eurozone," Carsten Brzeski, chief economist for Germany and Austria at ING, told DW. The euro has also gained from a general weakness in the dollar.What are the benefits of EU expansion? ›
Enlargement expands the area that enjoys liberty, security and the rule of law to embrace new member states. This helps strengthen the war on organised and international crime. More effective measures can be taken to combat drugs trafficking and trafficking in people as well as terrorism.What special advantage has Europe enjoyed due to its location? ›
It has put a strong focus on manufacturing activity as it has abundant natural resources. Moreover, Europe has the advantage of warm ocean currents coming north from the tropics. There is little interaction with colder air masses and colder ocean currents so overall.
Ireland crowned Europe's friendliest country
The medal of Europe's friendliest and most welcoming country goes to Ireland.
The Netherlands has been rated among the most unfriendliest countries in the world for expatriates by Forbes magazine, while Canada is rated the most friendliest country for expats.Which country has the nicest people? ›
- Canada (friendlier than the USA!)
- New Zealand (friendlier than Oz!)
Europe is one of the more popular travel destinations in the world due to its cultural heritage, famous scenery, and lavish lifestyles. It's impossible to tour Europe in one trip, let alone ten, but we can at least give some popular destination spots to check off your bucket list.What is the European quality of life? ›
The European Quality of Life survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives, and how they feel about those circumstances, and their lives in general. It looks at a range of issues, such as employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work-life balance.Where is the best place to live in Europe? ›
- 8 Stockholm, Sweden.
- 7 Berlin, Germany.
- 6 Edinburgh, Scotland.
- 5 Lisbon, Portugal.
- 4 Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 3 Zurich, Switzerland.
- 2 Geneva, Switzerland.
- 1 Vienna, Austria.
A strong exchange rate, affordable housing, and free healthcare are just some of the reasons leading so many American citizens to make the move across the pond.How many Americans move to Europe? ›
Overview of American migratory demography (2005-2019)
American emigration to Europe totalled 3,6 million people in 2005, and 5 million in 2019, whereas Americans emigrating to other countries counted 29,3 million people in 2005 and 40 million people in 2019.
Is Europe more expensive than America? Overall, Europe often has lower costs when measured against the United States. These financial benefits should be measured carefully against factors including income level, monetary conditions, destination, and economic conditions.What did the EU used to be called? ›
25 March 1957 – Treaties of Rome
They formalise this by signing two treaties, creating the European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom).
There are eight recognised candidates for membership of the European Union: Turkey (since 1999), North Macedonia (2005), Montenegro (2010), Serbia (2012), Albania (2014), Moldova (2022), Ukraine (2022), and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2022).Why Europe is called like that? ›
Europe is the second-smallest continent. The name Europe, or Europa, is believed to be of Greek origin, as it is the name of a princess in Greek mythology. The name Europe may also come from combining the Greek roots eur- (wide) and -op (seeing) to form the phrase “wide-gazing.”Why is Sweden not in EU? ›
Despite being a part of the European Union, Sweden remains outside the eurozone. The country held a referendum on joining the euro back in 2003, but a majority of the population decided not to adopt the single currency.Why isn't Norway in the EU? ›
Norway had considered joining both the EEC and the European Union, but opted to decline following referendums in 1972 and 1994. According to the European Social Survey conducted in 2018, 73.6% of Norwegians would vote 'No' in a referendum to join the European Union.Can I move to Europe without a job? ›
Yes, it is possible to move to Europe without a job! The process won't be the easiest one, but if you really want to move to Europe, then that should motivate you to get through the harder parts without giving up.Why is Switzerland not in the EU? ›
Switzerland is not a member of the European Union (EU) mainly because of its long-standing tradition of neutrality and sovereignty. Switzerland prides itself as a neutral country and has a long history of controlling its own sovereignty, especially after fighting hard to get it.Who rules the EU? ›
The European Commission is made up of 27 Commissioners – one per EU country. Together with the President of the European Commission, the Commissioners are the EU's executive branch, responsible for the daily running of the EU.Are the US and EU allies? ›
The two parties share a good relationship which is strengthened by NATO (a military alliance), cooperation on trade, and shared values. European Union Delegation, Washington, D.C.What is an important fact about EU? ›
In 1951, six countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) founded the European Coal and Steel Community. In 1958, this became known as the European Economic Community (EEC), and its name was changed to the European Union in 1993. Over the years, 22 more countries joined the original 6.What did the EU originally want? ›
The European Union was created as a result of post-war cooperation in Europe to ensure peace, prosperity, and stability on the continent. World War II left Europe with millions of civilian casualties, a devastated economy, and weak security.
Western Europe worked hard to maintain a stable and transparent political system. Whether it is good education, research facilities, or advanced technology, they have it all. These things define the success and growth of a country.How does the EU make Europe unique? ›
At the core of the EU are its 27 Member States and their citizens. The unique feature of the EU is that although the Member States all remain sovereign and independent states, they pool together some of their sovereignty in areas where this has an added value.What is the importance of EU in the world economy? ›
Europe: a major force in the global economy
The European Union is connected with the world like no other group of states. Although the EU's share of world trade has fallen slightly in recent years, it remains at a high level and represents a key foundation for growth, competitiveness and employment in Europe.
EU membership means you and your family have the right to live, work or study abroad in any of the 27 other member countries. It also guarantees many employment rights. The UK is a strong, independent nation. Our EU membership magnifies the UK's ability to get its way on the issues we care about.What are the benefits of the EU enlargement? ›
Enlargement expands the area that enjoys liberty, security and the rule of law to embrace new member states. This helps strengthen the war on organised and international crime.Why is the EU special? ›
The EU maintains diplomatic relations with nearly all countries in the world and undertakes a range of actions with strategic partners, key international players, and emerging and developing powers.What makes European identity? ›
European identity is defined by two key layers: Europe as a cultural community of shared values (cultural identity); Europe as a political community of shared democratic practices (political identity). EU values are such as human dignity, freedom of movement, democracy, equality, rule of law, human rights.Why is the EU important to the US? ›
“The European Union plays a significant role in safeguarding and promoting our shared values of freedom and democracy across Europe and around the world. Our shared aspiration for enduring European peace and prosperity is undoubtedly in the interests of the United States and our European friends, creating jobs."What is one characteristic of Europe that positively affects its economy? ›
Europe has a long and commendable prospecting tradition, and mining provides employment in all countries—although for smaller numbers as mechanization is applied. As in the case of North Sea gas and oil, new discoveries are still possible.What are the most important economic aspects of Europe? ›
What is the main economy of Europe? The European continent has a free-market, capital-based economy. This means there is a free flow of goods and services in these markets, with minimal trade barriers.
What will happen after we leave the EU? The European Communities Act will be repealed on the day we leave the EU – meaning that the authority of EU law in the UK will end. We will convert the body of existing EU law into domestic law and then Parliament will be free to amend, repeal and improve any law it chooses.How do countries join the EU? ›
A country wishing to join the EU submits a membership application to the Council, which asks the Commission to assess the applicant's ability to meet the Copenhagen criteria. Based on the Commission's opinion, the Council then decides on a negotiation mandate.